This tutorial will show you how to use the Datawiza Access Broker (DAB) to implement a Zero Trust architecture for your applications. We will deploy the DAB to proxy to a simple Flask application and will use Microsoft Azure Active Directory as our Identitiy Provider (IdP) to implement Single Sign on (SSO). The DAB provides a unified authentication and authorization layer which is decoupled from the application itself. It can be deployed both on-premise and on the cloud as a container. After deploying the DAB, we will also see how we can implement access control policies on a URL-level.
This tutorial was written and created using a Debian environment. The source code can be found on GitHub: https://github.com/rahultoppur/datawiza-blog.
Why Zero Trust?
A Zero Trust architecture helps to prevent successful data breaches by eliminating the concept of "trust" from an organization completely. It relies on the notion that everything within an organization's network cannot be trusted (say, connections from a VPN to a company resource). Whenever a user wants access to a specific resource, we make sure we authenticate and verify every step of the way.
Datawiza Access Broker (DAB) benefits
The DAB provides us with the ability to:
- Enable SSO with an Identity Provider (Azure AD, Okta) automatically
- Enable remote work without using a Virtual Private Network
- Enable a fine-grained URL-level access control based on a user's attributes
The Datawiza Access Broker is an identity-aware reverse proxy that sits in front of our applications. Traffic reaches the DAB first, and is then proxied to our app if allowed by the access policies we have specified. The DAB is managed by a centralized, cloud-based console: Datawiza Cloud Management Console (DCMC). The DCMC allows us to manage and configure the access control policies of multiple Access Brokers--regardless of whether they are running on-premise or in the cloud.
The DAB can be deployed in one of two modes:
- Sidecar mode: DAB deployed on the same server as the application
- Standalone mode: DAB deployed on a different server than the application
After learning a bit more about the architecture and benefits of the Datawiza Access Broker, let's see it in action for ourselves. In this tutorial, we will use the DAB to enable both SSO and granular access control for a simple Flask application serving static HTML. The Identity Provider we will use is Azure Active Directory.
- Our Flask application will run on our local docker interface. Perform an ip addr show docker0 to get this address. In this example, our Flask app is running on 172.17.0.1:3001.
- The DAB will run on localhost:9772. The traffic to our app will reach the DAB first, and then be proxied to our application.
- The docker image for the Datawiza Access Broker and code for the sample Flask application will be provided
Part 0: Installing prerequisites
We deploy the DAB as we would any other reverse-proxy, such as NGINX. In this tutorial, we will use docker-compose to run the access broker. Let's take care of these prerequisites by installing them now.
- Let's first install docker. Refer here regarding operating systems specific instructions. In a Linux environment, we can run wget -qO- https://test.docker.com/ | sh to install our docker dependency. We will need this when we try to pull the docker image containing the DAB.
- Download docker-compose. Refer here for installation instructions.
- Finally, check that both installations were successful by doing:
If both commands show their version and build numbers, you are good to go!
Part 1: A quick look at our Flask App
Our Flask app is serving static HTML. To see what the page looks like, first source the virtual environment:
Then, run the application: ./app.
When visiting http://172.17.0.1:3001, you should see the following image:
Eventually, once we set up the DAB to proxy to our app, we will be able to access our Flask application when visiting http://localhost:9772, where we should be prompted to sign with our Identity Provider (Azure Active Directory in this case).
Part 2: Configure Microsoft Azure Active Directory
We have to register an OIDC Web application on the Microsoft Azure AD portal. The three values we get from our configuration (Tenant ID, Application (client) ID, Client Secret) will be used for later configuration in the Datawiza Cloud Management Console (DCMC).
Obtain Tenant ID
- After registering for an account on Microsoft Azure, navigate to the Azure Active Directory tab in the menu.
Make sure to save the Tenant ID on your Azure AD overview portal located in the Tenant Information box.
Register our app in Azure
- Select App Registrations from the side bar and select + New registration. Create an Application with the following fields:
- Name: e.g., Demo
- Supported account types: Accounts in this organizational directory only (Single tenant)
- Leave other fields as their default values
- Click Register
Make sure to save the Application (client) ID after successfully registering your Application.
- Making sure we are now in the application we have just created and are no longer in our Default Directory, select Certificates & secrets from the side bar. Create a new client secret by selecting + New client secret.
- Specify a name for the client secret
- Make the default 1 year
Make sure to save the Client Secret after successfully creating a new client secret.
- While staying in the Demo application we created, select API permissions from the side bar. User.Read should already be configured by default. Find and add Group.Read.All permissions under: Add a permission -> Microsoft Graph -> Delegated Permissions -> Group -> Group.Read.All.
- After adding User.Read and Group.Read.All, make sure both permissions are "granted" for your directory. You can specify this option by selecting the Grant admin consent for Default Directory button.
- Select Authentication from the side bar. + Add a platform, and select Web under Web Application.
- Configure Web with the following values:
- Redirect URLs: http://localhost:9772/login/oauth2/code/azure
- You can leave Logout URL with its default value
- Make sure both Access tokens and ID tokens are allowed underneath Implicit grant
- Within your application, head over to the Manifest tab from the side bar. Ensure that the following values are both set to true:
- oauth2AllowIdTokenImplicitFlow: true
- oauth2AllowImplicitFlow: true
Part 3: Configure the Datawiza Cloud Management Console (DCMC)
Just like how we created an application on Azure AD, we need to create an application along with a keypair (API key, API secret) on the DCMC. This keypair is used in order for the Datawiza Access Broker to get the latest configurations and policies from the Datawiza Cloud Management Console.
- Log into the DCMC with your credentials. If you need a username and password, please contact email@example.com.
Create an application
- Welcome to the DCMC homepage! Let's get started! Select the Get started button in the upper-right corner to create a new application integration. Create an integration with the following fields:
- Identity Provider: Microsoft Azure Active Directory
- Application Name: e.g, Demo
- Select Web as the platform option.
Configure app settings
- Configure the applications settings with the following values:
- Public Domain: http://localhost:9772. Make sure to use http instead of https.
- Copy and paste the previous saved values from the Azure AD configuration (Part 1) for the Application (client) ID, Client Secret, and Tenant ID
- Upstream Server: (see below)
- Is the address of the application that you want to enable SSO for
- Set the upstream server to the local Docker network (ip addr show docker0) where our Flask app is being hosted. In this case, it is http://172.17.0.1:3001.
- Then select Create
Generate API keypair on DCMC
- Return to the Application tab and select API Token to generate a keypair. Select Create API Key.
- Give your API Key a name
- Select the expiry time to be 1 month later
- Make a note of your newly created keypair (API Key, API Secret). This will be needed when we run the DAB.
Part 4: Run Datawiza Access Broker with our Flask App
After setting up our configuration with Azure AD and the DCMC, we are finally ready to deploy the DAB alongside our Flask application and implement granular access control. Make sure you have installed the dependencies mentioned in Part 0.
- Create the following file named docker-compose.yml:
- Run docker login registry.gitlab.com -u datawiza-deploy-token -p ###### to login to the container registry. If you don't have the deploy token, make sure to contact info@datawizacom.
- Now, run docker-compose -f docker-compose.yml up (making sure you are in the same directory as your .yml file).
If everything looks good, you should be all set with the DAB.
Things to keep in mind:
- Make sure your docker-compose.yml file does not contain any tabs. They aren't allowed in YAML
- If you get the following error when running docker-compose:
Got permission denied while trying to connect to the Docker daemon socket at unix:///var/run/docker.sock: Get http://%2Fvar%2Frun%2Fdocker.sock/v1.40/containers/json: dial unix /var/run/docker.sock: connect: permission denied
you will need to add your current user to the docker group using the groupadd and usermod commands. Follow the instructions here.
- CONNECTOR_NAME specifies the Identity Provider you configured in Step 1.
- aad -> Azure Active Directory
- okta.oidc -> Okta
- "9772:9772" maps the docker host's port 9772 to the container's port 9772.
When we visit http://localhost:9772, we should be prompted to sign in with our credentials to Microsoft Azure Active Directory. Note that you may need to sign out of Azure AD if you are already logged in to see this page.
If you are seeing the Azure AD login page but are unable to login (Microsoft keeps asking for your username and password repeatedly), ensure that you have created a user for your AD domain. Logging in with the root account will not work. Your username should be in the form of firstname.lastname@example.org.
- You can create a User by going to your directory home page, and selecting Users underneath the Manage tab in the left-hand menu. Select + New user, and give a User name. After creating a user, you should be able to login with your new set of credentials under your domain.
At this point, we have been able to enable SSO with our IdP! In the next portion of this tutorial, we'll take a look at implementing Granular Access Control based on a user's attributes and other possible metadata of a request.
Part 5: Implement Granular Access Control
In this section, we are going to implement a simple form of granular access control with a resource. Through the Datawiza Cloud Management Console, access policies for multiple apps can be deployed in multiple environments (some in AWS, Azure Cloud, GCP, etc.) and others that are on-premise. We can configure our access control based on user attributes, such as their group in Azure AD or other metadata (URL, access time, etc.).
Let's observe this in action. Right now, when accessing our Flask app, we are instantly granted access to the home page and see a picture of Mr. Spock, Scotty, and Dr. McCoy. If you take a look at the source code for flask_app/app, you will see a route for federation. We will use this as our special "resource," and only grant access to it for certain users.
Add user on Azure AD
- We will first create a User in Azure Active Directory. In your default directory, select Users from the left side bar. Select + New user, and provide a username and password. We'll call our user James Kirk. Then, select Create.
Assign Kirk to the Federation
- Next, we will create a Group in Azure Active Directory. Navigate back to your default directory, and select Groups from the left side bar. Select + New group, and provide a name. We'll call our group Federation.
- Underneath the Members menu, go ahead and assign James Kirk to our new group, Federation. Then, leaving the other values as their defaults, select Create.
Configure rule on DCMC
Ideally, we only want users in the Federation group to be able to access our Flask resource (the /federation URL). We now need to configure a rule on the DCMC to reflect this. Navigate back to the DCMC, and select Application. Select the gear icon for your application to configure rules. Select the Create Rule option in the upper-left corner. Configure the rule as follows:
- Change the All requests if do not match below rules to Deny in the upper-right corner. We want to make sure that if an authentication request is not approved, we should deny access to the request. We should allow access to our resource only if our conditions are met.
- Resource Path: The path to our resource is /federation, as described on line 13 of our Flask app
- Priority: A lower number indicates a higher priority.
- Rule Type: We want to make sure we authenticate the request to our resource
- Rule Decision: The decision reached when the conditions are met.
- Conditions: Only allow members of the Federation group in Azure to gain access to our resource
Test it out!
Now, let's visit http://localhost:9772, and log in with our original user.
Now, when accessing http://localhost:9772/federation, we should see the following:
Remember that only James Kirk has access to the /federation resource!
Let's repeat the process, but this time using James Kirk's account to login to Azure AD.
When we visit http://localhost:9772/federation, we are greeted with the following picture:
Success! It worked!
Part 6: Summary
In this tutorial, we covered the basics of using the Datawiza Access Broker to secure our applications. We covered the major steps of accomplishing this integration, including:
- Configuring your identity provider
- Configuring the DCMC
- Running the DAB with our application
- Setting up Access Control Policies
I hope this tutorial has given you a taste of what Zero Trust is all about, and how both the DAB and DCMC make adapting this architecture to your applications a seamless experience. Please refer to docs.datawiza.com for further documentation and details on the Datawiza Access Broker.